As I was saying, I've been studying the "Mayan Bible," The Popol Vuh, with a new friend of mine here in Grenada, Spain. He's a wise man, a cave-dweller, artist and street musician. I've already written about him here and here. I've summarized the introduction to the Popol Vuh here. This current posting summarizes what the book calls "The First Narration" of the Mayan classic. I hope it communicates the book's Spirit. Useless Humans Made of Mud, Straw, and Greed In a hushed ancient Reality Without Time, Space, or Movement But only sea and sky, The Great Creators and Shapers, The Trinity of Tupeu, Gucumatz, and Huracan, Wonderfully Manifested their Unbounded energy Sourced from divine meditation (45). The Gods gave birth To oceans, rivers, and streams And to the earth itself Sowing it With food from heaven To nourish Every creature to come. All of it Made the deities exceedingly happy (And their council of Elders too, 47). For theirs was an act Of holy evolution Enabling their creatures “To perfect themselves.” Yes! All mortals, they said, Are called to perfection (48). And so, Lions, Tigers, and deer Serpents, snakes, and vipers Filled the earth (48). Birds swarmed in the skies Chanting wordless hymns Of praise and thanks To the Creators and Shapers (49). But sadly, None of the new creatures Found voice For conscious Expressions of thanks. This saddened the Gods Who therefore Condemned the animals To feed one another With their own Mute corpses (49). So, the Great Ones changed course Deciding to make A more perceptive And vocal creature Capable of offering them Conscious gratitude and praise. First they made An Earth Creature of mud. But it turned out to be Weak, blind, immobile, And impotent (50). Worse still: It could not Praise or thank Grandmother Moon (Xmucane) Or Grandfather Sun (Xpiyacoc 52). Next, they created men of straw. Yes, they could reproduce. But their children Were no more than dolls. They lacked heart, soul, Understanding and consciousness. Empty and useless, They wandered the earth In disgrace (53). So, in fury Gods Destroyed the earth In a Great Flood Of water and sticky resin. The strawmen were Slaughtered, crushed, Eaten, decapitated And thrown about Like sacks of wheat By all manner of animals. Even dogs And household pots and pans Got into the act (53-54). But the evil Vacub Caqix Somehow survived it all. Extraordinarily proud And exceedingly rich, His eyes could see nothing but silver. He claimed to be sun and moon Even before either was seen (55). Vacub Caqix’s pride Displeased the Gods Who sent the heroes Hun Ahpu and Ixbalanque To teach the hard lesson That Greatness is not measured By wealth and possessions (57). The two demigods Inflicted Vacub with sickness And a great toothache (60). They knocked him From the tree Whose fruit gave him life. But not before He disarmed (literally!) Hun Ahpu And ordered Mrs. Vacub To prepare the severed limb For a cannibal supper (59-60). Indeed, Vacub Caquix Was resilient. He begot Two powerful sons Zipacna and Cabracan Both movers and shakers Who claimed They had made And could destroy The earth itself. As a result, The Gods and their Elder Counselors Decreed that Vacub’s Evil Trinity Father and sons Must die (60). Disguising themselves As dentist-healers Hun Ahpu and Ixbalanque Persuaded a reluctant Vacub To let them pull His aching tooth (Even though Vacub’s Teeth and silver-blinded eyes Originated his power 62). The demigods replaced The pulled teeth With dentures Made of white corn. Defanged, And unable to eat, Vacub the Proud Was vanquished! His eldest son, Zipacna Was another story. His great stupid strength Caused everyone To fear him. Though he naively Trusted others And tried to help (63), Everyone (including the Gods) Wanted him dead. Once 400 young bucks Tricked him Into digging his own grave. But after three days In the tomb, He rose in fury To kill them all. But Hun Ahpu and Ixbalanque Killed the famished monster By making him pursue A dinner of giant fake crab Up a rocky peak Until the mountain Collapsed upon him For good. And then there was Cabracan Vacub’s younger son, The proud mountain destroyer (68). Pretending to be wandering hunters, Hun Ahpu and Ixbalanque Sought the monster’s help In reaching a mountaintop Whose peak (they said) Touched the sun. As they traveled up the slopes, The demigods shot birds With their blowguns (69). At nightfall, They seduced a hungry Cabracan To eat a poisoned pigeon. That’s how he died. These are only samples Of the great works Of Hun Ahpu and Ixbalanque (70). Their lesson: Greatness is not a matter of wealth, Or of physical strength, Or destructive power. It is a matter of living Before the Gods In praise and thanksgiving.
As I’ve mentioned in an earlier post or two (e.g., here and here) I’ve made a friend here in Spain who lives in a cave and makes his living playing guitar on the street. Simon is 60 years old and manages to live on the 10 Euros or so that his music affords each day.
At my invitation, I spend at least an hour or so with him weekly in conversation — usually on Wednesdays. The point is to better my grasp of Spanish. In the process, I’m learning about the underclass in the Granada area, and about simple living among those who have chosen to drop out of the rat race. I’m learning so much.
In any case, my friend is very thoughtful. He and I are studying together the Mayan “Bible,” the Popol Vuh. It contains that culture’s myths about the origin of the universe. For ecologists such as Joanna Macy, the book points us in the direction of the “deep ecology” that all of us must travel to save the planet. Simon is definitely moving that way.
For those who might be interested, my next number of posts will share my thoughts on the readings my friend and I are discussing. For instance, what follows is my summary of the book’s 40 page introduction (complete with page references to the volume pictured above). See what you think.
The Popol Vuh
The Popol Vuh is the Bible of the Mayan people (31). Unlike some other indigenous peoples, the Mayans were particularly sensitive ecologically speaking (11).
Accordingly, and unlike the West’s mechanical view, the Popol Vuh represents a work of what Joanna Macy calls “deep ecology.” It imagines an organic, living universe inhabited by conscious animals who communicate with human beings in ongoing dialog (9-11, 17).
Moreover, according to the Mayan Bible, everything in the universe is part of a whole – of a “holonarchy” (10). It contains no distinction between human beings and nature. Rather, everything exists within a network of relationships (11). Each human embodies a connection with particular elements of created reality, e.g., with mud, wood, or corn. (17). Besides this, every human has a twin spirit (or nahual) within the animal kingdom. Examples of nahuals (totems?) include the swordfish, jaguar, quetzal, serpent, owl, etc. (17, 21).
At its beginning, the Popol Vuh recounts the origins of the universe as created by Great Spirits called “Creators” and “Shapers.” They represent different aspects of Nature – viz., Gaholom [the infinite Divine Empty Space within which creation takes place] Tzacol [the Divine Will incarnate in nature), Bitol (the Divine Energy found within every creature], and Alom [the Divine Mystery — the incomprehensible, and ineffable within created reality] (39-40).
Creation results from an interplay between those Creators and Shapers. Gaia (a complex entity comprising soil, oceans, atmosphere, and all living beings) is the result (21). Creation is divided into four parts, north, south, east, and west, represented by the colors white, yellow, red, and blue (14).
According to the Mayans, human beings are complex creatures. They have somehow evolved from simians (21). The masculine embodiment, Hunahpu and Ixbalanque are at the same time heroes and abusers of their powers. They often are depicted as mistreating animals. Sometimes they even practice human sacrifice – though it’s not clear to what extent such inclusions in the Popol Vuh were late additions influenced by colonialism, feudalism, and their accompanying bellicosity (28).
Meanwhile, their mother, Xquic, is kind to the animals and always enjoys success in her relationship with them (24). However, it is the Great Abuela, Xmucane, (not a masculine God) who turns out to be the Heart of the Earth (25). She embodies the ethic of care for the other who always has value and manifests Spirit – even the humble ant (26).
The moral of the Popol Vuh is “Treat all creatures – all of creation – with loving care or one day disaster will strike” (20). The entire non-human world will rise to mutilate and destroy its abusers (21).